The process by which flour is allowed to stand for some time after grinding until its original creamy colour has turned white. Was carried out by chemical bleaching at one time, but generally no longer so.
Longitudinal shutters sometimes incorporated on outer end of leading edge of patent sails, actuated by shutter mechanism to open & break up air flow in heavy gusts and thus reduce the speed of rotation of the sails. Also known as SKYSCRAPERS.
Used in the sizing of paper. It is added to ANIMAL SIZE or GELATINE to stabilise the consistency, to act as a preservative by arresting the formation of destructive bacteria and to help render the GELATINE impervious to ink.
Produced by boiling the waste pieces of hides, hooves, bones etc. in copper-lined steam-jacketed heaters. The GELATINE helps to prevent ink and water penetration into the paper. Also known as ANIMAL SIZE.
(1) A flat plate at the end of the trough delivering water to a waterwheel.
(2) Arc or breast of stone or wood fitted behind a breast or pitchback waterwheel to contain the water in the buckets.
(3) The brick or wooden boarded floor to a watercourse, upstream or downstream from a sluice or waterwheel to prevent the water from scouring under the foundations.
(4) The area around the bedstone, into which the mill eye is set.
(5) A sheet of oiled cloth, leather or rubber which bridges the gap between the breast box and the moving wire on a FOURDRINIER paper machine so that the PULP is delivered evenly onto the wire.
A device for raising water for drainage purposes, consisting of a long sloping coarse-pitched screw, made of wood or metal, rotating in a close fitting trough. See also AUGER. The Japanese have a small archimedean screw which is used "in reverse" for producing power on a farm.
(1) In mills, a horizontal screw helix or Archimedean screw, revolving in a trough or tube and employed for the horizontal movement of grain or meal. It was improved by Oliver Evans an American millwright in the C18th.
(2) A carpenter's tool for boring holes; used by millwrights.