A balance beam (back or bauk) with scales (boards) used for weighing heavy objects. (Scotland)
See PITCHBACK WHEEL.
see DULL to DULL.
The drag caused by the immersion of the lower part of a waterwheel in relatively static water..
A small iron box or cavity let into the upper face of some runner stones for the insertion of lead or iron BALANCE WEIGHTS. There are usually four.
See BALANCE BOX.
Lead or iron weights inserted in the runner stone to achieve perfect balance . Patent balance weights employed discs of lead or iron carried on a threaded screw.
A MILL used for grinding tree bark - usually oak - to allow the extraction of tannin for tanning leather.
Hordeum Sp. (Gramineae). The most abundant cereal crop in Britain lacks high gluten content & is thus unsuitable for bread-making; used as animal food & in brewing. See GRAIN
The part of a SACK HOIST where the chain is wound. Also known as a drum.
A pivoted beam suspended at its centre, carrying a frame to support a sack at one end and a support for weights at the other.
Hair-like growth found on the end of wheat or barley kernels.
That part of a machine which supports a JOURNAL. Usually made of brass or gun-metal, but sometimes hardwood, stone or castiron. See BRASS or HALF BRASS. See JOURNAL. see NECK BEARING.
The lower fixed MILLSTONE in a horizontal pair. Also known as a ligger, nether stone, lower millstone, under stone or lyer (to"lig" = to"lie" in Cumbrian dialect).
A cranked triangular-shaped iron lever bracket, part of a patent sail mechanism.
see TILT HAMMER.
The cams lift the helve midway between the pivot and the head.
A wheel with a broad flat or convex rim, sometimes flanged, used with a driving belt. Also called a WOOD RIGGER (old term).
Hard steel double-ended wedge-shaped chisel, held in a handle (THRIFT), used for dressing stones; traditionally carbon steel; modern bills may be tipped with tungsten carbide. Flat or Pick.
Storage compartment for grain, usually arranged on the top floor of the mill (BIN FLOOR).
The floor to which grain is raised to be kept in storage bins; usually the top floor. Also known as a GARNER FLOOR or GRANARY FLOOR.
An ingot, ball or lump of iron, having undergone the first hammering. The initial product of the direct iron making process.
Whole upper part of a post mill above the trestle, containing all the machinery, which revolves as the mill is winded. See also BUCK.
(1) An alternative term for a CHAIN POST.
(2) An alternative term for the horizontal or vertical barrel of a SACK HOIST. Sometimes sack bollard.
A mechanical device for separating flour from bran, by beating it through a rotating cylinder of cloth. This was at first of wool, then calico & latterly of silk, hence the term 'silks', but other cloth may be used. First introduced in C16th (later SILK MACHINES were used).
A mill used for grinding bones for fertiliser and for the pottery industry.
A floating log anchored across the entrance to the mill race designed to prevent floating debris from damaging the wheel.
An alternative spelling of BOLTER.
In windmills, a band brake of wood or iron working on the outer rim of the BRAKE WHEEL, & controlled by a BRAKE LEVER (also known as a brake beam or brake staff) and BRAKE ROPE. Also known as a gripe.
An alternative name for a BRAKE LEVER.
The lever operating the BRAKE mechanism.
An alternative name for a BRAKE LEVER.
Primary gear wheel in a windmill mounted on the WINDSHAFT, having face or bevel gear, which drives the WALLOWER, having a contracting brake acting on its rim. Also known as a HEAD WHEEL.
Grooved rollers used for breaking grain. Used in the first stage of ROLLER MILLING prior to reduction etc.
(1) The main horizontal transverse beam supporting the NECK OF THE WINDSHAFT. Also known as WEATHER BEAM or RODE BALK. (2)The transverse beam in the breast of the mill beneath the STONE FLOOR, in which case the BREAST BEAM is called the WEATHER BEAM. (East Anglia).
The middle section of the grinding surface of a MILLSTONE.
A WATERWHEEL which is turned by the weight of water in its BUCKETS, the water entering the buckets at about the level of the WHEELSHAFT. Developed in the 18th and 19th centuries. See also HIGH BREAST WHEEL, FOUR-O’CLOCK WATERWHEEL, LOW BREAST WHEEL.
Explore other types of waterwheel in our Thematic Glossary.
See BREAST-SHOT WHEEL.
An adjustable lever beam supporting the thrust bearing at the foot of the stone spindle & thus bears the weight of the runner stone; raised or lowered for adjusting or TENTERING the gap between the stones. Part of the hursting or hurst frame. Sometimes made of iron.
An open-topped iron box to contain and locate the FOOTBRASS of a vertical shaft. Usually has 3 or 4 BRIDGING SCREWS to locate and secure the footbrass to correctly align the shaft. Commonly fitted to BRIDGE TREES to carry the STONE SPINDLE. May also be fitted below the UPRIGHT SHAFT or other vertical shafts.
Variety of dresser with fixed horizontal cylindrical wiremesh screen, 4 to 6 feet (1.2 to 1.8m) long in which angled brushes rotate to drive the meal lengthwise while it is being sieved.
A WATERWHEEL with BUCKETS round its rim.
also known as FRENCH BURR STONE. Imported millstones, usually built up of shaped blocks of freshwater quartz (siliceo calcareous stone) quarried in the Paris basin mainly near La Ferte sous Jouarre along the River Marne and at Epernon; set in cement or Plaster of Paris and bound with metal bands, for grinding wheat to produce flour. Introduced to England in the C15th. Generally about 4ft diameter and 1ft thick, weighing up to 18cwt. Very occasionally stones made from a single block of stone. Valued as the stone for producing white flour. Made up into millstones in numerous places in Britain.