Flint nodules roasted in a kiln to make them easier to grind. Then crushed & ground in water in a GRINDING PAN to provide a component part of potters "clay" for making white pottery. It is rich in silica and airborne dust causes silicosis. Early grinding was done in air with resultant lung damage.
A set or stack of rollers or rolls between which the paper passes and is smoothed by their weight or heated rollers for hot pressing and glazing The CALENDER is placed at the end of the paper-machine while the super-calender is separate. Both may have heated rolls. In the 1850's usually a separate finishing process but now usually integrated in the Paper mill.
An operator of stacks of CALENDERS or heated rollers for hot pressing and glazing of cloth or paper as used in textile and paper making. In the 1850's usually a separate finishing process but now usually integrated in the paper mill.
Two curved lifting irons which connect a STONE CRANE to the RUNNER STONE via pins inserted into sockets set into the edge of the stone. The curvature of the irons allows the stone to be turned over while being suspended.
The segments of the wooden rim of a GEAR WHEEL to which the SPOKES and COGS are attached e.g. BRAKE WHEEL, SPUR WHEEL. If the cants are so large as to fill the centre of a wheel, the wheel is 'planked solid'.
The moveable roof and frame supporting the WINDSHAFT, SAILS and luffing gear in a TOWER or SMOCK MILL. This cap may have several different shapes most of which are not readily defined e.g. : boat, conical, dome, ogee, onion, pent, pepperpot etc and which may also possess regional variations of construction.
A metal object made by pouring molten iron, brass or other metal into a mould having the shape of the required object. When the metal has cooled and solidified, the finished or partly finished object is removed from the mould. Moulds are usually made of damp sand, by imprinting a PATTERN.
Iron which has been melted (either, anciently in a blast furnace or in a cupola). The molten iron is removed from the bottom of the furnace and poured into moulds. Cast Iron tends to be brittle due to absorption of carbon and other impurities from the fuel and ore. See CASTING.
A heavy timber frame at dust floor level, suspended from the cap frame by uprights and braces, used to weigh down the cap and to keep it centred within the curb of a tower mill via an iron ring encircling the upright shaft. Called a WELL-FRAME by Rex Wailes by the analogy of its shape to a well-sinking frame.
A rotating FLOUR DRESSER in which the ground material is forced against a circumferential sieve by internal rotating beaters. The sieve also rotates, but slowly. also known as CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATOR and CENTRIFUGAL REEL SEPARATOR.
A rectangular open frame suspended below a cap frame, to weigh down the cap and keep it centred within the curb of a tower mill. Called a WELL-FRAME by Rex Wailes by the analogy of its shape to a well-sinking frame.
A pole extending down from the fanstage for attaching the striking chain to when the mill is not working. It is equipped with pulleys at the bottom end, through which the chain passes, to prevent it swinging about and hitting the mill tower.
Wheel turned by means of an endless chain; for winding mill or working striking gear etc. (can be used in reverse for sack hoist e.g. in Lincolnshire). See also Y-WHEEL. Also applied to a wheel in a hoist - either carrying sack chain or as a driving means.
Was an important detergent used in the Fulling process. It is, of course, a polite name for urine. In some places this was purchased from householders at 1d per pot, hence the expression "to spend a penny".
A stone with a high silica content, used for grinding CALCINED FLINT. Hard varieties, used as pavers, are obtained from N. Wales near Gronant & at Richmond Yorks. Softer varieties veined with limestone, used as RUNNERS, from Derbyshire.
When the 'teeth' of a GEAR WHEEL are separate and replaceable they are called COGS. May be wooden (or metal). Need to be a resilient close-grained wood. Woods used: Apple, Beech, Pear, Hornbeam, Oak, Acacia, Hawthorn, Holly, Ash and Oak often being used for wet work. Wooden COGS, the SHANKS of which are fitted tightly into MORTISES in the rim of the wheel after the fashion of a TENON, are secured by wedges or pins after the fashion of TUSK TENONS.
Traditional northern Europe windmill sails, where cloth, sacking or canvas is spread on a lattice framework, each sail being set separately to suit the wind conditions, Is the earliest type of sail now in use in England. Various terms are used to indicate the varying amount of cloth spread on a common sail. See also JIB SAILS
(1) A term used by Jesse Wightman for the iron box set in the eye of a bedstone to receive the spindle. See NECK BOX .
(2) The iron box containing the steady bearing in a BEDSTONE.
(3) The box used for making sand moulds for castings.
(1) FALSE. If the body of a post mill is extended backwards or forwards, the lighter construction posts are "false".
(2) TRUE. The corner posts of a post mill body. Where the body has been extended (or is so constructed) to have FALSE rear corner posts, true corner posts lie within the body towards the rear.
Process whereby compressed slabs of milled black powder are broken by being passed between a series of toothed, fluted or smooth gunmetal or zinc rollers, and then separated or `cut' by sieving into granules of approximately even size.
(1) A gear connecting one or more other gears or wheels and turning in an opposite direction.
(2) The bevel wheel on the horizontal countershaft of a drainage mill with a turbine pump, engaging the crown wheel on the bottom of the UPRIGHT-SHAFT. (Norfolk).
(1) A process in stone dressing involved in cutting fine grooves or CRACKS on the lands of millstones.(up to 16 to the inch) also known as STITCHING, FEATHERING, SCRATCHING or DRILLS. Pits at irregular intervals, instead of grooves, are cut for grinding oats.
(2) The process of breaking maize, beans etc. between millstones or rollers.
A part of or attachment to a rotary SHAFT which is offset such that its axis which is parallel with the shaft, describes a circle when the shaft rotates. Usually used in conjunction with a "connecting rod" to convert the rotary motion of the shaft into a reciprocating motion as for oscillating a sieve. Also used as a component part of engines.
A cord used to adjust and hold the angle of the shoe feeding grain to the eye of the RUNNER STONE, also where it operates a GATE, SLIDE or SPATTLE in the HOPPER or SHOE as alternative means of control. Also known as CORD (Northern TERM). See TWIST PEG.
(1) A main horizontal member of the underframe (TRESTLE) of a POST MILL. There are commonly two, set at right-angles, but sometimes three. The outer ends carry the QUARTER BARS & the centre intersection fits the horns on the bottom of the MILL POST to steady it. The crosstrees normally rest on masonry or brick piers and carry the weight of the whole structure via the quarter bars.
(2) In a horizontal watermill, a horizontal bar which steadies the LIGHTENING TREE at half its height to resist side thrust.
An iron bar having a flattened slightly curved end. Used to raise or lower the RUNNER STONE in conjunction with a MANYHEIGHT and STONE WEDGE to allow a ROPE SLING to be passed through the EYE of the stone for use in turning the stone over for DRESSING. Also known as PINCH BAR. See also STONE WEDGE. Known as a GAVELOCK in northern counties.
(1) A horizontal gear wheel mounted above the GREAT SPUR WHEEL near the top of the main upright shaft, from which secondary drives may be taken for auxiliary machinery including the SACK HOIST.
(2) WALLOWER in a windmill (Lincolnshire/Suffolk).
The TEETH of a GEAR WHEEL, the shapes of which are curved in accordance with the path traced by a point on one circle (the generating circle) as it is rolled inside or outside of another circle (the pitch circle).
Invented by John Dickinson in 1809 and has a cylinder covered with wire through which the water drains, leaving the PULP on the surface. The cylinder is partially immersed in a vat of PULP. It has been developed into board machines and machines for making paper with complex WATERMARKS.