Flint nodules roasted in a kiln to make them easier to grind. Then crushed & ground in water in a GRINDING PAN to provide a component part of potters "clay" for making white pottery. It is rich in silica and airborne dust causes silicosis. Early grinding was done in air with resultant lung damage.
Two curved lifting irons which connect a STONE CRANE to the RUNNER STONE via pins inserted into sockets set into the edge of the stone. The curvature of the irons allows the stone to be turned over while being suspended.
Compare a STIRRUP which serves the same function but is a single piece of metal.
A SHAFT to which CAMS are fitted.
The moveable roof and frame supporting the WINDSHAFT, SAILS and luffing gear in a TOWER or SMOCK MILL. This cap may have several different shapes most of which are not readily defined e.g. : boat, conical, dome, ogee, onion, pent, pepperpot etc and which may also possess regional variations of construction.
The horizontal timber frame forming the base of the cap.
A rope winding roller or drum which is rotated by the insertion of rods or bars into holes through the roller. May be used for lifting MILLSTONES or for WINDING the mill.
An instrument used to give the weight of a bushel of grain, using only a small sample. Sometimes spelt chrondrometer.
A MILL in which apples are pulped and pressed to extract the juice for cider making.
A MILLSTONE dressing where the furrows have one or both edges cut in a circular arc.
SAILS of a WINDMILL that run clockwise when viewed from the front of the mill.
When the 'teeth' of a GEAR WHEEL are separate and replaceable they are called COGS. May be wooden (or metal). Need to be a resilient close-grained wood. Woods used: Apple, Beech, Pear, Hornbeam, Oak, Acacia, Hawthorn, Holly, Ash and Oak often being used for wet work. Wooden COGS, the SHANKS of which are fitted tightly into MORTISES in the rim of the wheel after the fashion of a TENON, are secured by wedges or pins after the fashion of TUSK TENONS.
A measure which is a quarter of a PECK. (Northern Scotland)
The grooved, moving cylindrical component of a centrifugal governor, attached to the links, and engaged by the fork of the STEELYARD. Same as SPOOL.
Two pieces of sheet metal, each with a semi-circular cut-away, encircling the neck journal of a windshaft to exclude the weather. Sometimes found on waterwheel shafts as well (Kent).
Mill for grinding materials to produce colour for paint.
Traditional northern Europe windmill sails, where cloth, sacking or canvas is spread on a lattice framework, each sail being set separately to suit the wind conditions, Is the earliest type of sail now in use in England. Various terms are used to indicate the varying amount of cloth spread on a common sail. See also JIB SAILS
A rod designed to convert circular motion into 'to and fro' motion in steam and other engines etc. Used in saw mills.
Protective regulatory statutes controlling import & export of grain from time of Edward III till 1846 when Free Trade was introduced by Peel. Bounties paid on export & duties on imports.
The series of fine grooves or cracks on the LANDS of MILLSTONES. As many as 16 to the inch may be cut. Also known as stitching, feathering, scratching or drills. Pits at irregular intervals, instead of grooves, are cut for grinding oats.
See STONE CRANE.
The stage of the sawmill with the CRANKSHAFT.
A rotary SHAFT which is fitted or incorporated with a CRANK.
Principal stout transverse framing beams of the BODY of a POST MILL, pivoting on top of the POST.
(1) A horizontal gear wheel mounted above the GREAT SPUR WHEEL near the top of the main upright shaft, from which secondary drives may be taken for auxiliary machinery including the SACK HOIST. (2) WALLOWER in a windmill (Lincolnshire/Suffolk).
The circular timber or iron wall plate including the TRACK supporting the revolving cap of a smock or tower mill.