By letter

F

Face Gear
see FACE WHEEL.
Face (of a Cog)
The width of the driving surface of a cog.
Face (of a Millstone)
The working surface on a millstone.
Face Wheel
GEAR wheel with COGS on the plane face or flat of the wheel, and not around the outer edge, used in conjunction with a SPUR PINION, to drive at right angles. As distinct from a spur-wheel where the cogs project radially.
Facing
(1) Trimming or shaping a millstone before making furrows. (2) Dressing the area around the eye of a millstone.
Faggot Store
A store for bundles of firewood sometimes found associated with bakeries.
Fall
see HEAD OF WATER.
Falling Stocks
see FULLING STOCKS.
Fall Trough
see TROUGH.
False Board
The fixed upper 'door' of the undershot hatch.
False Hoop
Hoop for holding a balance weight on a millstone.
Fan
(1) A wind wheel comprising a set of small BLADES which turns the CAP or POST MILL body into the EYE OF THE WIND. (FANTAIL.) (2) A bladed WHEEL for producing a draught of air.
Fan Blade
see BLADE (1)
Fan Braces
Supports to the FAN SPARS. See FAN(1).
Fan Frame
The vertical, horizontal and diagonal timbers supporting the FAN (1).
Fangle
A marking tool with an adjustable, sharp scriber, which may be set up on a fixed point to scribe construction lines on to "blank" wooden teeth as the wheel is turned. In this way, the teeth may be marked to a perfect circle irrespective of the truth of the wheel itself.
Fang Staff
see brake lever - from the Dutch 'vang stock' (East Anglian term for BRAKE LEVER).
Fanners
see WINNOWER
Fan Spars
The wooden uprights supporting the FAN(1).
Fan Spindle
The iron shaft carrying the FAN assembly and the pinion.
Fan Staff
see FAN SPINDLE.
Fan Stage
The platform at the back of the CAP giving support & access to the FANTAIL of a tower or smock mill.
Fan Staging
The wooden supports and platform of the FAN mechanism at the top of a tower or smock mill.
Fan Star
The iron hub of a FAN (1).
Fan Stocks
Spars attached to the HUB of a FAN on to which the FAN BLADES are secured.
Fan Tackle
The FAN driving gear, especially the TAILPOLE mounted assembly on a post mill.
Fantail
A small set of sails having typically from 6 to 8 wooden boarded BLADES, set at right angles to the main windmill SAILS, and connected to the winding gear to allow the mill to move automatically into the wind. Located to the rear of the POST MILL or the CAP of a TOWER or SMOCK MILL. The "Fan" is connected by SHAFTS & GEARS to the rack on the curb or to TRAM WHEELS as appropriate, to keep the sails facing the EYE OF THE WIND. There many variants of design. Patented by Edmund Lee in 1745. Also known as FLY TACKLE. See FAN, FLY, FAN SPARS etc. See WINDING GEAR.
Fantail Carriage
Carriage running on wheels on the ground carrying a FANTAIL, & attached to the TAILPOLE or LADDER of POST MILL.
Fanwheel
see Fan
Fast and Loose Pulleys
Two adjacent belt pulleys of the same diameter on a driven shaft, one FAST (fixed) to the shaft the other LOOSE. The belt is guided onto the FAST pulley by a STRIKER to engage the drive, or to the LOOSE pulley to disengage the drive.
Fatts
The wooden casing around the millstones. Same as TUNS.
Feather
(1) Longitudinal rib cast on a shaft, or key fitted thereto, over which a gear such as a stone nut may be slid axially to engage or disengage with another gear. SPLINE. KEY. (2) The sloping edge of the FURROW where it meets the LAND.
Feather Edge
The grinding edge at the top of the gradually sloping edge of the FURROW where it meets the LAND.
Feather Edge Boards
see WEATHER-BOARDS.
Feathering
An American term for STITCHING. See CRACKING
Feathers
The blades of a horizontal waterwheel (Shetland).
Feed
A general term for grist or animal fodder produced in a mill.
Feed Alarm
see BELL ALARM.
Feed Box
A metal or wooden box containing a gate, which feeds water to an OVERSHOT or PITCH-BACK waterwheel, or a TURBINE.
Feeder
(old term) see DAMSEL.
Feeding Jacks
Definition required.
Feed Line
see CROOK STRING.
Feed Shoe
see SHOE.
Feed-Water Heater
see ECONOMISER.
Felloe
Sometimes pronounced 'felly'; One of the sections forming the rim of a wooden wheel, including the rim of a wooden waterwheel. Where the wheel rim has CANTS for attachment to the spokes, the felloes are the additional parts of the rim through which the COGS are morticed.
Felly
see FELLOE.
Felts
Woven material of either cotton or wool with a raised surface which supports the wet sheet of paper during the stages of removal of water and on a machine the subsequent drying.
Felt Washer
A machine for washing the woollen felts used in paper making.
Fence
see DEBRIS GRILL.
Fen Mill
see MARSH MILL.
Fer-De-Moline
Heraldic term for the mill rhynd (in the shape of an "X").
Filler
A flour added to a blend to provide bulk rather than strength.
Fillet
Small curved internal corner of a CASTING.
Finery
A FORGE or hearth in which iron PIGS (CAST IRON) were heated to a semi-molten condition (to burn out excess carbon etc.) before hammering to remove impurities, to produce BLOOMS.
Finest
( of Flour) Best Grade.
Finial
A ball or pinnacle on top of an OGEE, DOME or CONICAL-SHAPED CAP.
Fintail Canister
see CROSSTAIL GUDGEON
Firlot
Unit of volume equals 4 PECKS or a quarter BOLL (early term). 12 gallons (Scot.).
First Reef
The first degree of reefing with a COMMON SAIL, when only the outer tip of the sail cloth is reefed. See COMMON SAIL
Firsts, Seconds & Thirds
Grades of meal delivered from a flour dresser. See FLOUR.
Fish Bellied
Term used to describe a wheel shaft which is thicker in the middle than at the ends. Such SHAFTS are commonly cruciform in section.
Fixed Rynd
see RYND.
Flail
A hand-threshing implement, with a wooden staff at one end and from which a stouter shorter pole (swingle or swipple) is hung to swing freely.
Flake
One of the particles composing feed bran. Also a particle of middlings material that has flattened out during grinding.
Flake-Buster
A machine to break up middling flakes.
Flanch
see FLAUNCH.
Flange
A projecting flat rim or collar.
Flashes
Wooden boards, equipped with handles, which may be slid into slots above the main gate of a sluice to raise the level of water in the head pond.
Flash Lock
A primitive forerunner of the pound lock; adjustment of a removable staunch or sluice released a flash of water on which boats could be hauled upstream. Its use could seriously interfere with the running of a watermill and their use on many rivers led to disputes between millers and boat owners.
Flat Grinding
A set of stones set together as close as possible, to produce the maximum amount of flour.
Flat Rods
Wooden or iron rods employed with CRANKS for the horizontal transmission of power to distant machinery, commonly used to connect a waterwheel to mine drainage pumps.
Flats
THIMBLES, mounted on a flat plate, in which the sail SHUTTERS are pivoted.
Flaunch
Circular plate of metal on the hub or rim of a waterwheel to which the arms are bolted. Also called FLANCH.
Flawing
Levelling the face of a MILLSTONE with a MILL Bill and rubbing burr, same as FACING.
Flax
Linum Catharticum (Linaceae). A plant which produces seeds from which linseed oil may be extracted and stems from which the flax fibre is obtained, from which linen is made.
Flax Break
A machine for removing the woody from the fibrous portion of flax.
Flax Comb
see HECKLE.
Flax Mill
A TEXTILE MILL in which FLAX (the fibrous stem of the linseed plant) is processed.
Fleet
(l) Shallow (of furrows). (2) A small waterway or channel.
Fleme
see FLUME.
Fleume, (Fleam)
see FLUME.
Flights
Small paddle-shaped wooden parts of the CONVEYOR.
Flint
A hard stone of nearly pure silica found in irregular lumps in chalk formations. These can be calcined (burnt) in a FLINT KILN. See CALCINED FLINT.
Flint Kiln
A vertical cylindrical kiln in which layers of flint and coal are burned (9OO degrees C) to produce CALCINED FLINT before it is crushed and ground. Calcining makes the flint easier to grind.
Flint Mill
For grinding flint for use in ceramic industries. see also POTTERS MILL.
Flint Mill Runner
Blocks of softer CHERT used in a GRINDING PAN.
Float Boards
see FLOATS (1).
Floating Mill
A vessel containing milling machinery and powered by undershot wheels, moored where the current is strongest (e.g. midstream or beneath the arch of a bridge) or where access is easiest (e.g. near the river bank) also known as a BOAT MILL.
Floats
(1) The wood or metal blades, or paddles, of an undershot waterwheel. Often made of Elm, Oak or Pitch-pine. Fixed by the STARTS to the rim of the wheel. The boards are pushed by the water to turn the wheel by absorbing kinetic energy from the water. (2) The BLADES on a SCOOP WHEEL.
Float Wheel
An undershot wheel used in a FLOATING or BOAT MILL.
Flock Mill
A mill for shredding cloth to make flock for stuffing mattresses etc.
Flong
A board used for forming stereotype MOULDS.
Flood Cill
see SPILLWAY.
Flood Gate
see FLOOD HATCH.
Flood Hatch
A sluice diverting water through the bypass or spillway, clear of the waterwheel.
Floor Collar
A wooden collar fixed round a hole in the floor through which a shaft etc. passes.
Flop Jack
A primitive pumping device, with a rocking beam.
Flour
Finely ground MEAL, usually intended for human consumption.
Flour Cloth
Cloth having various finenesses of weave to DRESS(1) flour in a BOLTER.
Flour Dresser
see DRESSER.
Flour Dressing Machine
see DRESSER.
Flour Machine
A generic term for any type of flour-sieving machine
Flour Middlins
see STANDARD MIDDLINGS.
Flour Mill
(1) A flour-sieving machine. (2) A factory for milling FLOUR.
Flour Reel
see REEL.
Flow Chart
A diagram of the equipment layout in a large mill (usually a roller mill) showing the progress of grain from the time it is received until ground into flour.
Flower
An early name for FLOUR.
Flude Shutters
see SLUICE GATES (Scot.).
Flume
An artificial water channel. Also known as a LADE, LEAT or GOIT.
Flume Gate
see HEADGATE.
Flush Gates
see FLOODGATES.
Flutter Wheel
Narrow waterwheel of moderate diameter with radial floats placed at the bottom of a chute, it worked by the impact of the water. Used primarily in up-and-down saw mills, it was capable of providing as many as 120 strokes of the saw per minute (so called because of the birdlike sound it makes).
Fly
(1) The FAN on a FANTAIL. See FANTAIL. (2) The triangular areas of LAND between the FLY FURROW and the outer edge of a MILLSTONE which has a HARP DRESSING.
Flyer
East Anglian term. See FLY(1).
Fly Frame
Frame consisting of FLYPOSTS & FLYSTRINGS, being part of the FANTAIL of a POST MILL. See FAN FRAME.
Fly Furrow
Smallest of quarter dress furrows of millstones (BUTTERFLY FURROW). See DRESS(2) QUARTER DRESS.
Flyposts
see FANSPARS.
Fly Spindle
see FAN SPINDLE.
Fly Stage
see FANSTAGE.
Fly Stocks
The arms of a fantail.
Fly Strings
Near-horizontal timbers attaching tops of FLY POSTS to STEP STRINGS.
Fly Tackle
see FANTAIL.
Flywheel
(1) Heavy-rimmed wheel on a rotating shaft to enable a steady speed to be maintained or to accumulate energy. (2) see FANTAIL
Foils
Tapered strips of plastic fitted under the moving wire of a FOURDRINIER machine to scrape off the water and drain the sheet more quickly.
Folding Wedges
A pair of identical wedges driven in opposite directions, used to tighten up and keep level.
Footbrass
The bearing supporting the bottom of an upright shaft or spindle revolves. Also known as FOOTSTEP BEARING.
Footstep Bearing
see FOOTBRASS.
Forebay
Reservoir or extension of LAUNDER or millrace. Water is passed to waterwheel.
Fore Edge
The leading edge of the LAND of a MILLSTONE.
Forelock Bolt
An early form of iron bolt, which has a mortise and a wedge to tighten it, instead of a thread and nut.
Forge
An open hearth furnace with bellows, for heating wrought iron to make it malleable. See FINERY.
Forge Mill
A mill in which water power is used to drive the machinery, or bellows, for forging iron.
Forked Lever
A lever with a forked end; may be used to disengage STONE NUTS.
Fork Iron
Part of the STRIKING GEAR mechanism for PATENT SAILS which joins the TRIANGLES to the SHUTTER BARS.
Forward Sill (Cill)
see SILL (3).
Fountain Mixer
A mixing machine for mixing animal foodstuffs.
Four-Beat Damsel
see DAMSEL
Fourdrinier
The name applied to the normal type of paper machine after the brothers who financed its early development. A machine for making paper in a continuous length.
Four-O’Clock Waterwheel
A low BREAST-SHOT waterwheel - the water entering at 4 o'clock by a clock face and leaves at 6 or 7 o'clock.
Four-Post Mill
see POST MILL (19c Suffolk & Essex term).
Frame Floor
The floor in a saw mill which carries the saw frame.
Frames
In stamp mills, the timber structure enclosing the stamps.
French Burr
see MILLSTONE(1) BURR.
French Stone
see MILLSTONE(1) BURR.
Friction Clutch
Means of transmitting power from one shaft to another in the same axis.
Friction Drive
(1) Where power is transferred from one smooth-rimmed wheel to another by the friction caused by bringing them forcibly together. They may have flat or bevelled faces and may be faced with end-grain wood or with iron against wood. A form of clutch used on sack hoists and other devices. (2) Typically the friction drive for a sack hoist from a wheel on the upright shaft. See SLACK BELT.
Friction Ring
(1) hardwood ring drive added to the wallower to drive the sack hoist via a friction wheel. See FRICTION DRIVE. (2) iron ring on the cap or dust floor that engages with a similar ring on the bottom of the centring frame.
Frock Mill
see SMOCK MILL.
Frog Box
used to transfer powder from Glazing Drum to barrel (Gatebeck).
Frogs Foot
see BIRDS BEAK JOINT (Suffolk term).
Frogs Foot Joint
see BIRDS BEAK JOINT (Suffolk term).
Frog Spars
see QUARTERBARS (old Lincolnshire name).
Front
Of a mill or cap: the side that faces into the wind and has the sails attached.
Front Bearing
The bearing which supports the weight of the windshaft at the front of the mill.
Front Frame
Supports the weather-boarding at the front of a mill.
Front To Front
The method of operating rollers so that they are run with the shorter face of the corrugated cutting edge on the faster rotating roller meeting the longer face of the corrugations on the slower rotating roller. Called 'SHARP TO SHARP' in USA.
Fulcrum
The pivot point of a lever.
Fulling
Action of thickening & scouring cloth in a mill to make it compact & firm, by pounding it under FULLING STOCKS in a mixture of water and additives which may include Fullers Earth.
Fulling Mill
A mill in which the FULLING of cloth is carried out. First referred to in the C12th.
Fulling Stocks
Water-powered mallets or stamps employed for FULLING cloth, driven by a camshaft.
Full Sail
A common sail with cloth fully spread. see COMMON SAIL.
Fulminating Compound
A detonating compound.
Fungus
see SMUT.
Funnel Bins
Bins with conical bottoms to be self-clearing.
Furl
see REEF.
Furnace Pond
Mill pond associated with supplying power for the bellows of furnace; associated with the Wealden iron industry (c.f. HAMMER POND).
Furnish
The material from which paper is manufactured.
Furrowing
The process of cutting furrows in a millstone face. A feather quill and RADDLE together with FURROWING STRIPS are used to mark the stone.
Furrowing Strips
Two strips of wood having a length of the longest furrow on a millstone and a width of the furrow & land respectively. Used to lay out & maintain the correct dimensions for HARP dressing. Also known as SPLINES.
Furrows
The main grooves or channels cut into the grinding face of a MILLSTONE, producing a sharp edge to assist in the grinding, to allow an admixture of air to cool the meal and to move grain from the EYE to the edge of the stone as it is ground. See also MASTER FURROW. 2nd, 3rd 4th FURROW
Furrow Splines
see FURROWING STRIPS.
Fusil
Heraldic term (an elongated lozenge) for the MILL BILL.