A wooden straight edge used for testing the faces of MILLSTONES & used with TIVER to mark the high spots when preparing the stone for DRESSING. Also known as WOOD PROOF or WHEAT STAFF. See also PROOF STAFF & RUDDING BAR. Often made of mahogany.
A wood-framed mill, found in the Netherlands, similar in outline to a SMOCK MILL, but often square in plan, where the whole mill is supported & winded near ground level on wheels or rollers, on a curb or low walls said to have been introduced in Holland at the end of the C16th. as a saw mill.
A factory in which rags and other material are turned into pulp by processes including BEATERS, STAMPS or HOLLANDERS, and the subsequent making of the paper. The buildings may be characterised by the extensive drying lofts.
A SHUTTERED self-regulating sail controlled by automatic STRIKING GEAR, patented in 1807 by William Cubitt of Norfolk, designed to achieve a fairly constant speed irrespective of the wind force. See STRIKING GEAR.
A one piece millstone quarried in the Peak district of Derbyshire and Yorkshire; geologically "millstone grit, a coarse quartz-like sandstone". Cheaper than a BURR STONE. Usually used for animal feed. Loosely used to describe similar stones. Also known as 'GREY STONES'.
Barley grains which have had their outer skin removed by attrition. Prepared by grinding barley between a single vertical grindstone moving fast and an outer slowly rotating perforated metal case, whereby the grains are rounded and polished. The whole of the husk is thus removed except that portion left in the furrow of the seed. See GRUBBE.
A form of IMPULSE turbine developed in America in the second half of the C19th. Most suited to situations where a very high head of water can be used to produce a high velocity jet (or jets) which is directed on to cup-shaped buckets around the rim of the wheel. To efficiently convert the kinetic energy of the water to mechanical power, the rim of the wheel must move at approximately half the velocity of the water.
(1) Blocks of cast iron set into the underside of a cap frame to bear on a DEAD-CURB. (Lincolnshire). (2) Lumps of CAST IRON which have solidified, into grooves in the sand floor in front of the smelting furnace. The grooves are normally arranges in the form of a main channel from which branched numerous side channels for the pigs. The main channel produced the SOW.
(1) see ANGLE OF WEATHER. (2) The distance between faces of successive TEETH of a GEAR WHEEL, measured at the PITCH CIRCLE. (3) A black tenacious substance, obtained by the distillation of tar or turpentine, applied hot to the outside of a mill to weather-proof it.
A WATERWHEEL where the water is delivered at the buckets at the top of the wheel on the same side as the LAUNDER. Usually the bottom of the wheel rotates in the same direction as the water in the tailrace.
Where two GEARWHEELS are running together, each is considered to have an imaginary circle, these circles just touch each other at the point of nearest approach of the wheels. The diameters of these Pitch Circles are such that if the wheels had no TEETH and the pitch circles were pressed together so that they did not slip, the relative motions of the two wheels would be the same as with toothed wheels. Pitch Circles are usually marked out on the ends of wooden COGS when laying out the shapes and positions for their working faces.
(1) In a WATERMILL the primary GEAR WHEEL mounted on the inner end of the WHEEL SHAFT, often in or partly in, a pit in the mill floor. (2) In a DRAINAGE MILL the vertical DRIVEN GEAR WHEEL mounted on the inner end of the SCOOP WHEEL SHAFT, usually in or partly in a pit, which takes its drive from the CROWN WHEEL at the base of the UPRIGHT SHAFT.
Method of producing a smooth surface on sheets of generally hand-made paper by placing them between polished plates of zinc or copper and passing them back and forth with slight friction between pressing rollers.
A corn crushing mill consisting of a MORTAR in which a PESTLE is repeatedly forcibly dropped to crush or crudely grind grain. (1) The PESTLE may be manually operated. (2) see SAPLING MILL. (3) The PESTLE may also be water powered. In this case, the PESTLE is attached to one end of a SWEEP (3), to the other end of which an open-topped box is attached. Water pouring into the box weighs it down, lifting the pestle (after the fashion of a see-saw) until the water tips out of the box. The pestle then descends into the mortar to crush the grain, and awaits the box refilling with water to repeat the cycle.
also known as MIDDLINGS. Intermediate product or middle grade of FLOUR when passed through a DRESSER. May contain particles of BRAN with attached pieces of ENDOSPERM. Mediocre flour. see THIRDS and MIDDLINGS.
The end of a WINDSHAFT, which usually has two apertures set at right angles, through which the STOCKS are passed and secured by wedges. With a wooden windshaft, the apertures are mortised through the end of the shaft. Splitting of the end is prevented by fitting GRAPPLING IRONS. Wooden shafts often had their rotten ends cut off and replaced by a CAST-IRON combined Poll End and NECK JOURNAL which was secured in the same way as a CROSS-TAILED GUDGEON to the end of the WINDSHAFT remaining inside the mill. Cast-iron windshafts were usually cast in one piece complete with Poll End, though jointed windshafts are occasionally found. Also known as a CANISTER.
An improved type of lightly-constructed undershot waterwheel designed to run fast, fitted with metal buckets curved to a specific pattern; the water is channelled below an inclined sluice; invented by General J V Poncelet in 1824.
Used for filling sacks. A suspended lever carries a wooden or metal ring with sack hooks at one end. Has sufficient leverage to enable the sack to be shaken manually. Steam mills had power driven-possers.
(1) The large upright timber post usually supported by for or more diagonal quarterbars on top of which a POST MILL BODY revolves. Sometimes called a MAIN POST or MILL POST.
(2) Term applied to a pile of sheets, normally 144 but varying in number, of wet PULP, fresh from the mould, just made into paper couched with alternate felts and ready for pressing.