By letter

R

Rabbet
Rebate - a long rectangular sectional recess cut in the edge of a member.
Race
The channel of water to and from the wheel, or the channel in which an impulse wheel is fixed. See HEADRACE & TAILRACE.
Rack
(1) The bar or rod toothed to engage with a pinion or worm. (2) Specifically the toothed or cogged track fixed around the curb in windmills equipped with mechanical winding gear.
Rack and Pinion
A means of converting rotary (PINION) to linear (RACK) motion. The PINION engages with the RACK and is used to raise or lower sluice gates, raise STONE NUTS out of gear, or operate windmill patent STRIKING GEAR.
Raddle
see TIVER.
Radial Arms
see COMPASS ARMS.
Rafters
The roof beams from eaves to ridge.
Rag Mill
A mill used for shredding old cloth etc, for paper making.
Rag Pump
see CHAIN PUMP.
Rags
Original material from which paper was made but now rarely used except for papers of the highest quality. Certain types of fibres could be used, e.g. linen, cotton, jute and some types of hemp ropes.
Raising Screws
see SCREW JACKS.
Rams
(1) see STAMPS. (2) see HYDRAULIC RAM.
Randans
Bran ground as fine as flour, probably from the second sifting (dialect word Surrey, early C19).
Rap
A protective block of hard wood, bone, metal or stone on the side of the shoe to take the knock of the quant or damsel.
Ratchet Wheel
(1) A toothed WHEEL which operates by a ratchet system & moves the baulk of timber towards the blades of a sawmill. (2) A toothed WHEEL engaged by a CLICK or DETENT, which prevents the wheel from turning in one direction.
Rattler
see DAMSEL.
Reaction
The principle whereby energy may be obtained from water in some TURBINES and some HORIZONTAL waterwheel which are fitted with curved floats, whereby the force produced by changing the direction of the water-flow as it passes, is utilised to turn the wheel. This can be a highly-efficient process.
Ream
Term used for a quantity of sheets of paper, at one time 480, but this could vary depending upon the type of paper and today is often 500. It probably bore some relation to the number of sheets a vatman could make in a day.
Rear Sill
see SILL.
Recoil Block
A resilient block mounted under the tail of a TILT HAMMER shaft to limit the length of the stroke; sometimes bedded on sacking, straw or compressed heather.
Reddle
see TIVER also RADDLE.
Red Dog
A very low-grade, branny flour used only for animal feed.
Red Oxide
see TIVER.
Red Staff
see PAINT STAFF
Red Stone
Type of millstone (Red Sandstone) used in N.W. England.
Reducing
The final stages in roller milling, in which smooth rolls reduce the endosperm to white flour.
Reduction
The process of milling grain into flour and its by-products.
Reduction Rolls
Smooth ROLLERS for reducing intermediate products (e.g. semolina) to flour. Identified by letters, usually A-M.
Reed
A long key engaging in a splined shaft.
Reef
Rolling up or furling, some of the cloth of a COMMON SAIL to reduce the working surface.
Reefing Stage
A projecting platform around tall tower or smock mills, providing access as appropriate to the BRAKE ROPE, tips of the SAILS, TAIL POLE and STRIKING CHAIN. also known as STAGE.
Reefing Tackle
PATENT SAIL mechanism.
Reel
(1) The wooden cylinder frame of the bolter, or other flour dresser, which is covered with the silks. (2) An inclined rotary separator for cleaning grain and also for dressing flour from meal. (2) A cylindrical form of sieve, made of sieve cloth mounted on a wooden frame. It rotated on its axis, which was usually tilted. (3) General term for the revolving frame or drum which receives the paper coming off the machine.
Reel Separator
see SEPARATOR.
Refining
Originally beating out any lumps left in the PULP before it passed to the paper-machine but is now used for the final beating of wood PULP. Hence the DISC REFINER is the machine which today beats most of the PULP for paper-machines with rotating ribbed discs or plates between which the fibres pass.
Regulating Sails
see PATENT SAIL.
Regulator
see GOVERNOR.
Rein Irons
see BRIDLE IRONS.
Relieved Faces
Recesses on the faces of an iron shaft - "cruciform shaft". e.g. Wheelshaft.
Retting
(1) The process of helping to separate the woody from the fibrous parts of hemp or flax, by soaking them in water. (2) Term applied to soaking flax in water in order to rot the hard stems which could then be broken to leave the fibres. In papermaking the rags were soaked with water so they rotted and became easier to beat.
Returns
Stock which is sent back for retreatment to the same machine.
Rework
General term for re-processed powder, for example corning-house dust returned for milling or pressing.
Rhind
see RHYND.
Rhine Stones
see CULLIN STONES.
Rhynd
Device set across eye of the runner to support the stone and take the drive. Also known as a CROSS, RIND, BRIDGE, RYND. See GIMBAL and SILE. (1) BALANCE RHYND A two-armed, flexible support for a RUNNER STONE consisting of an iron bar or BRIDGE secured across the EYE of the stone. A dimple in the underside of the bridge fits over the COCK HEAD of the STONE SPINDLE and serves to centre the stone on the spindle. A shaped iron MACE fits on the spindle to engage the bar and rotate the stone. (2) FIXED RHYND. A three or four-armed cross-piece which holds the RUNNER STONE firmly above the BEDSTONE. (3) STIFF RHYND. A collar fitted to the top end of a STONE SPINDLE which has three or four arms or spokes which fit into sockets cut round the EYE of the RUNNER STONE to carry the weight of the stone and control the gap between the grinding faces.
Ribs
Thin bars of wood which support the wire cover of a hand mould. They normally run across the narrow way and in a laid MOULD support the CHAIN LINES.
Ribs (of Dresser)
The rotating cylinder framing of a bolter or the stationary framing supporting the mesh in a WIRE MACHINE.
Rice
Oryza Ssp. (Graminaceae) A staple food in many Eastern countries, grown in marshy conditions. Used for cakes and puddings.
Rigger
(1) A device using chains or straps to disengage the STONE NUTS from the GREAT SPUR WHEEL. (2) Pivoting iron levers, with forked ends, used to lift stone nuts out of gear. See also FORKED LEVER. (3) see WOOD RIGGER.
Right-Hand Dress
The furrow pattern of a millstone which rotates clockwise as seen from above. See RIGHT-HANDED MILLSTONES. See also LEFT-HAND DRESS.
Right-Handed Fantail
A fantail, the fan of which when seen by a viewer having his back to the wind, turns clockwise. The wind usually operates the fantail when blowing obliquely on to it. The fan will reverse direction when the wind blows on to its opposite face, but will still be seen to turn clockwise by a viewer with his back to the wind.
Right-Handed Millstones
Millstones, the runner stone of which is seen (in a conventional windmill or watermill layout) to rotate clockwise when seen from above. With millstones DRESSED with HARP pattern furrows, a MASTER FURROW, when viewed from one edge of the stone, passes from the right-hand side of the EYE (DRAFT CIRCLE) to the edge of the stone towards the viewer. The minor furrows lie parallel to it on its right hand side. With SICKLE DRESS and other variants of curved furrows, the furrows similarly pass generally from the right hand side of the draft circle towards the viewer. Both stones of the pair usually carry an identical Dress.
Right-Handed Windmill
A windmill, the sails of which when seen by a viewer having his back to the wind, turn anti-clockwise.
Rigour
A double flanged BELT PULLEY -used for driving a sack hoist.
Rim
The outer part of a wheel.
Rimmer
see HOOP(2).
Rind
see RHYND (Scot.).
Riner Stone
Runner stone (Scot.).
Ring
The space between the MILLSTONES and the TUN.
Ring and Screw
see JACKING RING.
Ring Gear
A geared ring fixed to the SHROUDS or ARMS of a metal waterwheel from which the drive is taken. See RING GEARING.
Ring Gearing
The use of a PINION to take a direct drive from a toothed ring on the SHROUDS or ARMS of a metal WATERWHEEL. This produces a higher speed with less torque, usually used on large diameter wheels.
Ringing
TUN (N Yorks).
Ring Oiled Bearing
A bearing in which oil is lifted into the bearing by an OIL RING, loosely fitted over the JOURNAL and which dips into the oil reservoir below.
Ring The Mill
(1). to provide the first grain for grinding after the stones have been lifted. (2). To collect the meal which has fallen into the RING - regarded as the millers perk.
Riparian Rights
The right of a landowner to use water from a stream flowing through his property, but the water must be returned to the stream for the benefit of the next landowner. The right may include fishing, navigation, etc.
Ripe Charge
A mill charge after incorporation. (See WROUGHT CHARGE.)
River Mill
A watermill where the wheel is undershot and set directly in the river, not being served by a head or tail race
Rocking Lever
A lever, to which a chain is attached, for controlling the STRIKING GEAR of WINDMILL PATENT or ROLLER REEFING SAILS.
Rode Balk
see BREAST BEAM (Lincolnshire term, apparently derived from Dutch).
Roller
(1) A cast-iron roller used, with others, to support a cap on a SHOT CURB or the body of a COMPOSITE MILL or PALTROK MILL. (2) Used for crushing/grinding grain See ROLLER MILL and OAT CRUSHER.
Roller Bearing
A bearing where the SHAFT is carried by rollers, usually set in a cage.
Roller Blind Sail
see ROLLER REEFING SAIL.
Roller Man
An employee in a roller mill, responsible for the operation of the rollers.
Roller Mill
(1) A FLOUR MILL where ROLLER MILLING is carried out. (2) A machine with grooved or smooth steel rollers for grinding grain.
Roller Milling
A C19th development (Budapest 1839. Britain 1880) in which the grain is gradually reduced to flour by being repeatedly passed between pairs of rollers. The rollers are set progressively closer together and sieving takes place between each pair, to separate flour from bran and germ. The rollers rotate with different surface speeds to facilitate the grinding process. Rollers which deal with whole grain & coarser particles are fluted to enable them to operate effectively. Some rollers may employ water cooling to limit the temperature rise of the product. See HOLDING ROLL.
Roller Reefing Sails
SAILS fitted with canvas strips wound on rollers in place of SHUTTERS. They are connected by webbing straps called LISTINGS. They are not automatic in action.
Rolling Bay
Weir with steps on face giving a wave or roller effect to the water running down. (Dorset term.)
Rolling Mill
A water-powered mill in which red-hot billets of metal are rolled between pairs of rollers to produce lengths of metal having a cross section determined by the shapes of grooves on the rollers e.g. round bars or angle-iron.
Rolls
Pyramidally-faced, or fluted, or smooth metal rollers used in corning.
Roman Cement Mill
A mill used for crushing "doggers" for making hydraulic cement.
Roof Ridge
Top ridge of a POST MILL or pent-roofed mill CAP.
Rool
An old term for a ROLLER (often occurs in inventories).
Rope
A stout thick cord made by twisting strands of HEMP, FLAX, hide or wire into one continuous piece.
Rope Drive
A system of power transmission where ROPES run on grooved PULLEYS. Ropes may be of cotton, hemp or manila, lubricated with plumbago and TALLOW. Wire ropes may be used.
Rope Pulley
(1) see BLOCK. (2) A WHEEL with one or more grooves, one for each endless ROPE, used to transmit power from one SHAFT to another, as alternative to using a BELT PULLEY. See ROPE DRIVE.
Rope Saddles
Two grooved fittings on the ridge of a cap or post mill roof to act as guides for ropes supporting a repair cradle. (Suffolk).
Rope Shoes
Two shoes on the roof of a POST MILL over which to pass ropes, to gain access for maintenance.
Rope Sling
see SLING.
Rotary Quern
see QUERN, ROTARY.
Rotary Sifter
see BRUSH SIFTER.
Round Beam
A wooden WINDSHAFT.
Roundel
The brick or stone base of a smock mill.
Round House Mill.
North-West Essex term used to describe a post mill (found in sale notices).
Round House (Post Mill)
Circular or faceted building enclosing & protecting the substructure of a post mill & providing storage. Normally of no structural significance, but at some northern mills where the cross tree lengths are too short to achieve stability in gale force winds, the top wall of the ROUND-HOUSE has a CURB on which wheels may run.
Round House (Tower Mill)
A building built round the outside of the lower floors of a tower mill.
Rounds
The STAVES in a Lantern Gear.
Row, Rowhead
Convex part of the mill trough which directs the water from the lade onto the wheel (Scot.).
Rubbing Burr
A small piece of French Burr used to rub down faces of millstones, to remove sharp spots before stone is STAFFED.
Rubbing Strakes
Wooden strakes fitted to stone or brick walls, to protect the wall from being rubbed away or damaged.
Rubblings
Possibly a BIST. Possibly associated with TIVER. A term used in listing stone dressing equipment.
Rub Stones
see RUBBING BURR.
Rudding Bar
see PAINT STAFF (N.E.Yorks.).
Ruddle
see TIVER.
Rule Of Thumb
Phrase derived from old-fashioned way of testing the quality of the grind, between the miller's thumb and first finger. See MILLER'S THUMB.
Rungs
(1) An old term for floats or paddles on a waterwheel. (2) In windmills, the transverse iron rod carrying the sail cloths at the HEEL of the SAILS. (3) see STAVES.
Runner
(1) The rotating element in a WATER TURBINE. (2) see RUNNER STONE. (3) A man whose job was to push a bogie.
Runners
Pair of solid wheels, resting on edge, mounted freely on a horizontal axle which was fixed to a vertical drive shaft. Runners rested on the mill-bed originally, later they were suspended about 75 mm above it. Runners were originally of limestone, later of cast iron or steel, and weighed up to six tons.
Runner Stone
The upper revolving stone of a pair of millstones. A 4 foot-diameter stone revolves at about 120 r.p.m. when grinding (outer edge of the stone is moving at about 18mph) also known as a LOOPER, UPPER STONE.
Running Balance
The RUNNER STONE is in running balance if the weight distribution within it is such that when the TENTERING GEAR is used to raise the stone out of contact with the BEDSTONE, the stone lifts with an even gap between the stones when the stone is running. A stone may be in STATIC BALANCE but not in Running Balance. Also known as DYNAMIC BALANCE.
Running Stone
see RUNNER STONE.
Running Wet
A pit wheel which is running in water or is being sprayed with water.
Run (of Stones)
American term for a single pair of MILLSTONES, used to describe the capacity of a mill See PAIR of STONES.
Runway
The bed of a waterwheel pit.
Russian Tallow
see TALLOW.
Rye
Secale cereale (Gramineae). will grow on poor soils. Was used for bead making until the C17th when its popularity declined. Susceptible to ergot infestation.
Rynd
see RHYND .