A means of converting rotary (PINION) to linear (RACK) motion. The PINION engages with the RACK and is used to raise or lower sluice gates, raise STONE NUTS out of gear, or operate windmill patent STRIKING GEAR.
(1) A toothed WHEEL which operates by a ratchet system & moves the baulk of timber towards the blades of a sawmill.
(2) A toothed WHEEL engaged by a CLICK or DETENT, which prevents the wheel from turning in one direction.
The principle whereby energy may be obtained from water in some TURBINES and some HORIZONTAL waterwheel which are fitted with curved floats, whereby the force produced by changing the direction of the water-flow as it passes, is utilised to turn the wheel. This can be a highly-efficient process.
Term used for a quantity of sheets of paper, at one time 480, but this could vary depending upon the type of paper and today is often 500. It probably bore some relation to the number of sheets a vatman could make in a day.
(1) The wooden cylinder frame of the bolter, or other flour dresser, which is covered with the silks.
(2) An inclined rotary separator for cleaning grain and also for dressing flour from meal.
(2) A cylindrical form of sieve, made of sieve cloth mounted on a wooden frame. It rotated on its axis, which was usually tilted.
(3) General term for the revolving frame or drum which receives the paper coming off the machine.
Originally beating out any lumps left in the PULP before it passed to the paper-machine but is now used for the final beating of wood PULP. Hence the DISC REFINER is the machine which today beats most of the PULP for paper-machines with rotating ribbed discs or plates between which the fibres pass.
(1) The process of helping to separate the woody from the fibrous parts of hemp or flax, by soaking them in water.
(2) Term applied to soaking flax in water in order to rot the hard stems which could then be broken to leave the fibres. In papermaking the rags were soaked with water so they rotted and became easier to beat.
Device set across eye of the runner to support the stone and take the drive. Also known as a CROSS, RIND, BRIDGE, RYND. See GIMBAL and SILE.
(1) BALANCE RHYND A two-armed, flexible support for a RUNNER STONE consisting of an iron bar or BRIDGE secured across the EYE of the stone. A dimple in the underside of the bridge fits over the COCK HEAD of the STONE SPINDLE and serves to centre the stone on the spindle. A shaped iron MACE fits on the spindle to engage the bar and rotate the stone.
(2) FIXED RHYND. A three or four-armed cross-piece which holds the RUNNER STONE firmly above the BEDSTONE.
(3) STIFF RHYND. A collar fitted to the top end of a STONE SPINDLE which has three or four arms or spokes which fit into sockets cut round the EYE of the RUNNER STONE to carry the weight of the stone and control the gap between the grinding faces.
(1) A device using chains or straps to disengage the STONE NUTS from the GREAT SPUR WHEEL.
(2) Pivoting iron levers, with forked ends, used to lift stone nuts out of gear. See also FORKED LEVER.
(3) see WOOD RIGGER.
A fantail, the fan of which when seen by a viewer having his back to the wind, turns clockwise. The wind usually operates the fantail when blowing obliquely on to it. The fan will reverse direction when the wind blows on to its opposite face, but will still be seen to turn clockwise by a viewer with his back to the wind.
Millstones, the runner stone of which is seen (in a conventional windmill or watermill layout) to rotate clockwise when seen from above. With millstones DRESSED with HARP pattern furrows, a MASTER FURROW, when viewed from one edge of the stone, passes from the right-hand side of the EYE (DRAFT CIRCLE) to the edge of the stone towards the viewer. The minor furrows lie parallel to it on its right hand side. With SICKLE DRESS and other variants of curved furrows, the furrows similarly pass generally from the right hand side of the draft circle towards the viewer. Both stones of the pair usually carry an identical Dress.
The right of a landowner to use water from a stream flowing through his property, but the water must be returned to the stream for the benefit of the next landowner. The right may include fishing, navigation, etc.
A C19th development (Budapest 1839. Britain 1880) in which the grain is gradually reduced to flour by being repeatedly passed between pairs of rollers. The rollers are set progressively closer together and sieving takes place between each pair, to separate flour from bran and germ. The rollers rotate with different surface speeds to facilitate the grinding process. Rollers which deal with whole grain & coarser particles are fluted to enable them to operate effectively. Some rollers may employ water cooling to limit the temperature rise of the product. See HOLDING ROLL.
A water-powered mill in which red-hot billets of metal are rolled between pairs of rollers to produce lengths of metal having a cross section determined by the shapes of grooves on the rollers e.g. round bars or angle-iron.
Circular or faceted building enclosing & protecting the substructure of a post mill & providing storage. Normally of no structural significance, but at some northern mills where the cross tree lengths are too short to achieve stability in gale force winds, the top wall of the ROUND-HOUSE has a CURB on which wheels may run.
Pair of solid wheels, resting on edge, mounted freely on a horizontal axle which was fixed to a vertical drive shaft. Runners rested on the mill-bed originally, later they were suspended about 75 mm above it. Runners were originally of limestone, later of cast iron or steel, and weighed up to six tons.
The upper revolving stone of a pair of millstones. A 4 foot-diameter stone revolves at about 120 r.p.m. when grinding (outer edge of the stone is moving at about 18mph) also known as a LOOPER, UPPER STONE.
The RUNNER STONE is in running balance if the weight distribution within it is such that when the TENTERING GEAR is used to raise the stone out of contact with the BEDSTONE, the stone lifts with an even gap between the stones when the stone is running. A stone may be in STATIC BALANCE but not in Running Balance. Also known as DYNAMIC BALANCE.