Sets of hinged twin trap doors in the floor, set vertically above each other, with the SACK HOIST chain passing up between them. The trap doors lift as sacks of GRAIN press up from below and fall shut by gravity when the sack has passed through. Also known as a HATCH.
Northern term for timber support for sails into which the SAIL BARS are morticed and which is strapped and bolted directly to the arms of an IRON CROSS (instead of a POLL END) at the outer end of the windshaft. Now often superseded by a combination of STOCK & WHIP BACKS. See SAIL BACK.
(1) St Andrews Cross - normal rest position.
(2) St George's Cross - brief rest position, also known as MILLER'S GLORY or MILLER'S PRIDE.
(3) Mourning - lower sail set slightly to right; viewed from in front of the mill (Dutch term).
(4) Celebration - lower sail set slightly to left; when viewed from in front of the mill (Dutch term).
The revolving arms of a WINDMILL which are secured to the forward end of the WINDSHAFT, and are turned by wind to provide the power to drive the machinery. See COMMON, SPRING and PATENT SAILS, ROLLER REEFING, HORIZONTAL MILL and JIB SAILS. Known as SWEEPS in Kent & Sussex.
An iron casting strengthening the bearing instead of wood-to-wood contact. Usually (but not always) they are later than the mill. Often used at the main bearing for the CROWN TREE at the head of the POST, carrying the body of the post mill.
A PLUMPING MILL(2) (pestle and mortar) in which a sapling (small tree) is bent over and attached to the pestle, acting as a spring, to assist the operator in lifting it. This eased the manual operation of the pestle.
A measured size of timber, dimensions of the cross section, a narrow piece of timber (less than a beam in cross section, i.e. less than 5 x 5 inches derived from slabbing a whole tree trunk and used for rafters, joists etc.).
(1) Used for heavy lifting operations. Early versions had two threaded wooden screws set between stout wooden blocks; the screws were turned by a lever inserted into holes in the screw.
(2) A screw mechanism for lifting a stone nut out of gear.
Hard particles of wheat from the MIDDLINGS, after DRESSING, or the granulated wheat particles of partly-reduced grain in ROLLER MILLING. It has the texture of coarse sand and is used to manufacture macaroni and spaghetti and domestically in puddings.
A thicker area in a sheet of paper formed either side of the supporting ribs of a hand MOULD because the ribs have drawn the water out of the PULP through the single-layered cover, so attracting more fibres towards them.
(1) A rotating bar of wood or metal for transferring power. See LAYSHAFT, UPRIGHT SHAFT and WINDSHAFT.
(2) The large wooden or iron beam to which the hammer head of a TILT HAMMER is fixed. See TILT HAMMER.
(1) Term applied to a sideways movement of a hand MOULD or the wire of a paper-machine to interlock the fibres while they are still suspended in the PULP.
(2) A split or crack along the grain in piece of timber.
(1) In POST MILLS, the principal framing members of the floor of the buck running fore & aft on either side of the post.
(2) In SMOCK or TOWER MILLS, the principal longitudinal timbers of the cap frame.
Millstones, often thin 'worn out' grinding stones, having little dressing, are tentered to be set apart a little less than the length of an oat grain. When kiln-dried oats are milled, the husks are split off leaving the KERNELS or GROATS intact.
Thin plates of metal or slabs of wood which are added or removed from a bearing to make it fit the journal properly when setting it up or adjusting it to compensate for wear. Shims may also be used for making fine adjustments to the position of a bearing or other component.
(1) Independent ring of rollers between the CURB and the CAP CIRCLE of a SMOCK or TOWER MILL.
see CURB, SHOT SHOULDER YOKE.
(2) Two bars projecting downwards from near the end of a TAIL POLE against which the miller sets his shoulders when WINDING the mill.
(1) The pivoted or hinged vanes in spring or patent sails. See also VANES & SHADES.
(2) A boarded removable or hinged cover which covers the opening in a wall of a mill, to admit light and/or ventilation. Sometimes used instead of windows.
A mechanism consisting of a flat circular horizontal plate attached above the RHYND and within the EYE of the RUNNER STONE. Above the plate is a vertical telescopic tube, concentric with the EYE, down which grain is fed to the stones. The telescopic tube is raised sufficiently above the plate to allow the required amount of grain to fall into the stones, the flow being maintained by the rotation of the circular plate. A CROOK STRING attached to a lifting lever allows the miller to adjust the height of the tube to regulate the grain flow from his operating position.
(1) Top of wall of weir or dam.
(2) Horizontal timber plates on top of base walls of a smock mill to carry cant posts & framing.
(3) FORWARD, (REAR) In a POST MILL, the heavy timbers at bottom of post mill body passing over the front (rear) of the SHEERS to support the CORNER POSTS (2).
(4) CAP. Two timbers used to support the roof members of some caps.
A driven SPUR GEAR WHEEL which has its TEETH set at an angle in order to properly mesh with the COGS of a driving gear. Example, sometimes found in a POST MILL in which a SHAFT is positioned behind a BRAKE WHEEL and below the WINDSHAFT, the angle of the skew gear teeth being such as to mesh with the brake wheel teeth. Used for low-power auxiliary drives.
(1) A downwards projecting shield protecting against entry of wind and rain. Also known as a PETTICOAT.
(2) (of cap) A SKIRT protecting the curb below a CAP in a SMOCK or TOWER MILL.
(3) (of postmill) A SKIRT keeping the weather out of the top of the round-house, usually a downward extension of the weatherboarding.
(4) (of millstone) The outer third of the grinding surface of a millstone.
(5) The outer edge of a millstone. Also known as the HEM.
(1) A short iron link connecting the spider to the triangle in a patent sail linkage (Kent).
(2) Chains or ropes for hitching a load to a lifting tackle. See SLING ROPE, SLING CHAIN, ROPE SLING, CHAIN-SLING.
A vertical machine used for removing smuts from grain by throwing them in such a way that diseased grains are broken open; these, being lighter are removed by an airstream together with the fungal dust.
(1) The multi-armed coupling on the front end of the STRIKING ROD and is part of the STRIKING GEAR which connects the SHUTTERS of all the SAILS together.
(2) The iron arms of a wooden waterwheel.
(3) The iron centre of a wooden-rimmed brake wheel.
Used in SPRING SAILS and come in a number of forms.
(1) COILED. In the form of a helix.
(2) ELLIPTIC. Two curved spring members, normally LAMINATED, hinged together at their ends after the fashion used in horse drawn vehicles. Used to control amount the shutters of spring shutter sail can open. Situated near heel of the sail.
(3) HALF ELLIPTIC. Comprising one curved spring member, normally laminated.
(4) QUARTER ELLIPTIC. Comprising half of a HALF ELLIPTIC spring, normally laminated.
(5) SINGLE LEAF. An unlaminated ELLIPTIC spring.
(6) LAMINATED. An ELLIPTIC-type spring built up from two or more thin spring components in order to give greater strength and flexibility.
SAILS constructed with SHUTTERS which turn after the fashion of the slats in a venetian blind, linked to a spring, the tension of which can be set manually so that the shutters will open & close according to wind strength, in order to control the power produced. An early form of shuttered sail introduced in 1772. (devised by Andrew Miekle).
(1) The process for marking the grinding face of a MILLSTONE using the PAINT STAFF. See also FACING.
(2) The outer edge or containment of a GRINDING PAN. May be made of wood, iron or steel plates, stone or masonry.
(1) Vertical iron-shod bulks of timbers, later all iron, used as pestles to break up materials such as ore or oil seed.
(2) Vertical baulks of timber, used to drive & release pressing wedges in oil mills & similar industrial installations.
A RUNNER STONE is in static balance if the weight distribution within it is such that when the TENTERING GEAR is used to raise the stone out of contact with the BEDSTONE, the stone lifts with an even gap between the stones when the stone is stationary.
Originally a tradesman who had a station or shop, as distinct from an itinerant vendor, formerly a book-seller, or publisher, or both, but now only a tradesman who sells writing materials, chiefly paper.
(1.) A tapered spar passing through the POLL END to which a SAIL is fitted on each end, the WHIPS being bolted & strapped to it.
(2.) see THRIFT.
(3.) The spar carrying the VANE of a FANTAIL.
(4.) Main shaft.
Small cogged PINION mounted on the STONE SPINDLE or QUANT, which is driven by the GREAT SPUR WHEEL, or the Brake or TAIL WHEEL in a HEAD-AND-TAIL POST MILL. May be engaged to turn the runner stone. The final driven pinion to the runner stone. See also SLIP COG.
A block, perhaps built up, which fits against the edge of the BEDSTONE while the RUNNER STONE is being turned over. It is secured against moving by bolts or pins engaging with purpose made holes in the floor. The edge of the runner stone rests on the Saddle as it is being turned over and is thereby prevented from slipping. It also protects the floor from damage. the SADDLE is not required when a STONE CRANE and CALLIPERS are used.
The wires fitted at three-quarter length along the SAIL BACKS to reduce movement as the sail passes the top of its circle and prevent wear on the bolts and strapping holding them to the iron cross. Used in Lancashire.
(1) The mechanism used with patent sails to apply pressure to the shutters, comprising a striking rod passing through the length of the windshaft, operated by an endless chain on which weights were hung to suit the force of the wind; a wind force greater than the effect of the weight would raise the latter & open the shutters.
(2) Striking gear was also employed with roller reefing sails.
see also BRIDLE IRONS, RACK AND PINION, ROCKING LEVER, REIN IRONS, SPIDER, SHUTTER BARS, SHUTTERS, STRIKING CHAIN, STRIKING ROD, STUMP IRONS, TRIANGLES.
Rod which links the spider to the adjusting mechanism of a patent or roller sail by passing down through the hollow wind-shaft & out through its tail end & can be operated from the ground by means of a chain with either a ROCKING LEVER or RACK & PINION GEAR.
An incorporating mill in which the runners (q v) were suspended so that they did not rest on the mill-bed. The adoption of suspended runners made an important contribution to the avoidance of mill ignitions and explosions, this in turn allowed significant increases in the mill charge (q v) and in productive capacity.
Arms attached to and driven by the upright shaft above the centre of a flint-GRINDING PAN. They push the RUNNERS round in the pan via the HANGING ARMS. The drive is via a friction clutch (BRAKE DRUM) which will slip should a runner jam. Commonly four sweep arms.
(1) The iron connecting piece between the upper end of the BRAKE band and the BRAKE LEVER. It usually has a number of holes for adjustment purposes.
(2) The GOVERNOR linkage (steelyard) utilising a number of notches for locating the fulcrum knife edges.