A massive spar projecting from the rear of a POST MILL, for WINDING a MILL by hand. Sometimes attached to the CAP of a TOWER or SMOCK MILL. Also used to support the STEPS off the ground to allow the MILL to be turned. See also TALTHUR. See YOKE.
A windmill caught with the wind blowing towards the rear side of its sails, with risk of reversal of rotation and consequential damage. Also carries a risk of the CAP blowing off a TOWER or SMOCK mill if the wind is strong.
The integral projecting parts of a GEAR WHEEL which engage with similar projections on another gear wheel to enable power to be transferred from one to the other. In millwork, it is normal for. the teeth to be carefully shaped to comply as nearly as practical with the principles of CYCLOIDAL GEARING. See COGS. TEETH may also be of iron which are integral with the CAST-IRON wheel, or may be cast in sections.
Formed on a woven wire cover which has been pressed into lower or higher areas to form a pattern. The lower areas form a darker and the higher areas lighter parts of the WATERMARK and the contours give grades in between. Portraits and pictures can be made with this technique which is often used in security papers. also known as EMBOSSED WATERMARKS or SHADOW WATERMARKS
Paint composed of red oxide of iron, tallow or fat & water, or soot & water (applied to the PAINT STAFF to detect & mark raised areas on grinding surface of stones prior to dressing. Also known as RADDLE.
A DERRICK POLE. Also refers to a pole erected in the centre of a windmill tower while the tower is being built. The radius & circularity being determined by the use of a TRAMMEL STICK which measures from the pole.
A machine for separating the grain from impurities, foreign matter and other seeds. Sorts by size and shape. Two versions, one lifts the wanted product, the other the unwanted. A similar method is found in the SIMON DISC SEPARATOR. Also called a TRIER. Same as a COCKLE CYLINDER.
(1) Small wheels fixed to the under-side of the CAP FRAME, running on the CURB, and carrying some or all of the CAP weight.
(2) Wheels which carry the CAP FRAME on the CURB.
(3) Wheels used to support the steps of post mills.
(4) Wheels that run against the inside face of the CURB to centre the CAP.
A system of gearing designed to allow two or more pairs of MILLSTONES to be driven by wind or water.
(1) A SPUR GEAR drive, employing an UPRIGHT SHAFT so that two or more STONE NUTS may be engaged with the GREAT SPUR WHEEL - applicable to both wind and water mills.
(2) A LAYSHAFT drive, where usually the PIT WHEEL drives a LAYSHAFT on which two or more BEVEL GEARS each take the drive to a pair of STONE SPINDLES.
(3) Variants of such drives exist.