A field which may flood naturally, or by controlled flooding in the winter, preventing the soil freezing, and thus obtaining an early crop of grass. As a result it is considered to be very fertile land. Beasts cannot be left there overwinter
A C19 development using an enclosed impeller whose cups or blades are scientifically shaped, driven by IMPULSE and REACTION of water. The casing commonly contains vanes or water flow control devices whereby the output power can be controlled. A higher efficiency and increased speeds and power are obtained compared with a water-wheel.
(1) ARMFIELD TURBINE A turbine manufactured at the Armfield works in Ringwood. They were millwrights and founders. Their two principle turbines were the "River Patent" and the "British Empire" which were produced from the late C19 onwards. Joseph J Armfield. The firm is no longer in existence.
(2) GILKES TURBINE A turbine manufacturer, whose works are in Kendal, who still repair and manufacture turbines. They have bought up many other turbine manufacturers over the years and are now the principal turbine firm in this country.
(3) FOURNEYRON TURBINE An outward flow reaction turbine.
(4) FRANCIS TURBINE A mixed flow reaction turbine in which the water enters the runner radially inwards and leaves axially. Developed in the U.S.A. in the 1840s.
(5) PONCELET WATER TURBINE An inwards, radial flow reaction water turbine developted in France in 1826.
A wheel which is able to extract mechanical energy from water as it passes from a high level to a lower level. There are various types of waterwheel, the selection of type being related to the conditions found at the site. See VERTICAL WATERWHEEL, HORIZONTAL TURBINE and WATER TURBINE.
(1) A restriction or dam across a water course to permit the backing up of the water (may be used to divert water to a mill).
(2) A feature in a dam permitting the excess water to pass over the top.
(3) An enclosure of stakes etc., to catch fish.
A circular component capable of rotating, used for many purposes and having many forms of construction. see WATERWHEEL, BELT PULLEY, GEAR WHEEL, BRAKE WHEEL, MITRE WHEEL, FRICTION DRIVE, TRUCK WHEELS, CAP-CENTRING WHEELS, WORM, WORM WHEEL, PIT WHEEL, COMBINATION PULLEY, COG WHEEL, SPURWHEEL, COMPASS ARM WHEEL, CLASP ARM WHEEL etc.
Wheatmeal which has been DRESSED to remove BRAN and other non-white constituents. There have been many types of flour depending on the degree to which unwanted materials have been dressed out and also on the initial quality of the grain. See MIDDLINGS, POLLARDS. BRAN.
A hand-operated machine with or without GEARS which can produce a powerful pull on a rope or chain useful for lifting or pulling operations, such as WINDING a mill with a winch fitted on its TAILPOLE. Also known as a WINDLASS.
TAILPOLE or FANTAIL for turning the windmill to face the wind (into THE EYE OF THE WIND). May also be turned by the use of inside winders such as the Dutch use or at Chesterton and Tysoe mills, as well as Wheel & Chain as at e.g. Bursledon and Llynon. Also known as LUFFING.
Main SHAFT of a WINDMILL axle of iron or wood, usually entering the cap or body of a windmill at a small angle to the horizontal, and which carries the sails and the BRAKE WHEEL. see also MORTISED WINDSHAFT.
(1) A machine in which a FAN(2) blows air to remove CHAFF and other light material from the grain as it falls across the airstream, before it is ground. It may incorporate sieves.
(2) A flat basket held or shaken in the wind to blow chaff and other light refuse from the threshed grain.
Device used to separate FLOUR from SHARPS & BRAN, and grade it into several qualities. A type of cleaning, or dressing, machine using a fixed cylindrical frame covered with a wire mesh containing rotary brushes. See DRESSER.
Pattern made from bent wires which form the WATERMARK. They are sewn onto the surface of the cover of a hand mould and protrude into the PULP, causing thinner areas which show as lighter lines in the sheet of paper.
(1) Cylindrical GEARWHEEL bearing a helical TOOTH or START; frequently used in conjunction with a rack in windmill winding gear. It could be regarded as a single-toothed GEAR WHEEL. Sometimes provided with more than one tooth or 'start'. In Westmorland it was used as part of the MILLSTONE lifting hoists.
(2) see AUGER.