The horizontal BEVEL GEAR or LANTERN PINION driven by the BRAKE WHEEL or PIT WHEEL to turn the UPRIGHT SHAFT or LAYSHAFT, being the first DRIVEN gear wheel in a wind or watermill.
A C19 development using an enclosed impeller whose cups or blades are scientifically shaped, driven by IMPULSE and REACTION of water. The casing commonly contains vanes or water flow control devices whereby the output power can be controlled. A higher efficiency and increased speeds and power are obtained compared with a water-wheel. (1) ARMFIELD TURBINE A turbine manufactured at the Armfield works in Ringwood. They were millwrights and founders. Their two principle turbines were the "River Patent" and the "British Empire" which were produced from the late C19 onwards. Joseph J Armfield. The firm is no longer in existence. (2) GILKES TURBINE A turbine manufacturer, whose works are in Kendal, who still repair and manufacture turbines. They have bought up many other turbine manufacturers over the years and are now the principal turbine firm in this country. (3) FOURNEYRON TURBINE An outward flow reaction turbine. (4) FRANCIS TURBINE A mixed flow reaction turbine in which the water enters the runner radially inwards and leaves axially. Developed in the U.S.A. in the 1840s. (5) PONCELET WATER TURBINE An inwards, radial flow reaction water turbine developted in France in 1826.
A wheel which is able to extract mechanical energy from water as it passes from a high level to a lower level. There are various types of waterwheel, the selection of type being related to the conditions found at the site. See VERTICAL WATERWHEEL, HORIZONTAL TURBINE and WATER TURBINE.
A board with a tapered cross section used for cladding. Their overlap may vary according to local tradition.
A TEXTILE MILL in which looms for weaving cloth are operated by water power.
(1) A restriction or dam across a water course to permit the backing up of the water (may be used to divert water to a mill). (2) A feature in a dam permitting the excess water to pass over the top. (3) An enclosure of stakes etc., to catch fish.
(1) Structural recess to accommodate a waterwheel, usually beside or between working buildings. (2) The pit in which a waterwheel turns. see also RUNWAY
The wooden or iron shaft on which the WATERWHEEL is mounted. see also AXLE.
Wind or watermill in which chalk or calcined limestone is ground with a pair of HORIZONTAL MILLSTONES, or by EDGE RUNNERS (in a water-filled grinding pan), for whitewash or fertiliser.
An ANNULAR SAILED WIND MILL on a skeletal wooden or iron tower, normally used for pumping or generating electricity. (Also known as AMERICAN WINDMILL.)
An artificial mound on or in which early POST MILLS often stood, either to give them greater height for a stronger wind or to cover the bottom of the TRESTLE to stabilise the mill against high winds.
Main SHAFT of a WINDMILL axle of iron or wood, usually entering the cap or body of a windmill at a small angle to the horizontal, and which carries the sails and the BRAKE WHEEL. see also MORTISED WINDSHAFT.
Annular sail controlled by patent type gear.
Device used to separate FLOUR from SHARPS & BRAN, and grade it into several qualities. A type of cleaning, or dressing, machine using a fixed cylindrical frame covered with a wire mesh containing rotary brushes. See DRESSER.
Cleans, cards, weaves and fulls woollen cloth.